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Definitions of cyber security prevention methods


Anonymizer – A tool that makes your Web navigation untraceable

• Anti-virus Software – Software that protects your computer from malware

Asymmetric Encryption – Encryption method that uses two different keys

Authentication, Authorization, Accounting (AAA) – The three elements necessary to insure the privacy and security of online information

Biometrics – Using biological information to authenticate people

Blacklist – A way to filter Internet traffic so that all traffic is allowed except for that from selected servers

CAPTCHA – A software tool used on Web sites to tell apart humans and Internet bots

CertificateAuthority (CA) – Entity that issues digital certificates

CertificateRevocation List (CRL) – List of digital certificates that have expired or been revoked

ClientAuthentication – A process Web sites use to identify valid users

CookieScrubber – A tool for removing cookies, which contain a user's sensitive authentication and web-surfing history information

Cryptology – The science of disguising meaning by using codes or ciphers

Cryptovirology – The study of how hackers create and deploy powerful malicious software

CyberEspionage – The use of software tools to obtain secret or private government or business information

DigitalCertificates – A way to authenticate the identity of a computer or user

DiskScrubber – A tool that makes it difficult for data deleted from a computer's hard disk to be recovered

DriveEncryptionTool – A piece of software that stores sensitive or other information on your hard drive in a form that only you can read

DummyAccount – An email account created to divert unimportant or unsolicited mail

EmailPrivacyTools – Software using encryption, digital signatures and other methods to prevent compromise of information in emails.

Encryption – Disguising information to make it unreadable

Firewall – A device that monitors and controls the traffic coming into and out of your computer

FlightMode – A PDA or mobile phone setting that enables only non-wireless features

Forensics – Using computer science and technology to investigate crimes

Honeypot – A trap or decoy used to divert, detect and characterize would-be attackers of a computer system

InformationNetworkingInstitute (INI) – An integral department of Carnegie Mellon University’s College of Engineering and the nation’s first research and education center devoted to information networking

InternetPrivacy – The general freedom from compromise of your personal or other sensitive information while using the Internet

IntrusionDetection System – A piece of software or hardware that recognizes attacks against computers and networks and responds with alarms and countermeasures

• Packet Filtering – Selectively allowing or preventing chunks of information from entering a computer network

Packet Sniffer – A program that reads or snoops on network traffic

ParentalControlSoftware – Software that monitors and limits children's online activity

Passcard – Means of identification for granting access, either physically or using software

PasswordSecurityTools – Software that stores multiple Web site-access passwords in encrypted form, so you can use them by remembering a single master password

Patch – A modification to a software program or an operating system that is issued by the manufacturer

PlatformforPrivacyPreferences (P3P) – A protocol that allows a Web site to declare to users its intended use for the information it collects

Pop-upBlocker – Software to suppress automatically displayed browser windows, called pop-ups, which are often used for advertisements

PrivacyTools – Software or hardware that helps to keep your personal information from being illegitimately seen or acquired

ProxyServer – A server used to make an Internet connection from certain computers

SSLClientCertificate – Certificate used in SSL connections that contains detailed identification information about a user

SecureInstantMessaging – Software that makes data less likely to be compromised when using instant messaging

SecureRemoteLogin – A way of accessing a distant computer with low risk of compromising a username, password and data

SecureShell (SSH) – A protocol for gaining secure access from your computer to a remote computer

SecureSockets Layer (SSL) – A protocol that dictates how two computer systems should exchange messages

SecurityKey – A tool used to encrypt and decrypt content

SmartCardsandTokens – Objects that have microchips in them loaded with identifying information

SymmetricEncryption – Encryption method where the same key is used to encrypt and decrypt messages











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